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A hernia occurs when an organ like intestine or fatty tissue squeezes through a weak spot in a surrounding muscle or connective tissue called fascia. The most common types of hernia are inguinal (inner groin), incisional (resulting from an incision), femoral (outer groin), umbilical (belly button), and hiatal (upper stomach).

Most hernias aren’t immediately life threatening, but they don’t go away on their own. Sometimes they can require surgery to prevent dangerous complications.

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Types of Hernia

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal hernia is a bulge in the groin (it is area inside our undergarment). It is the most common type of hernia.

The bulge can be limited only to the groin or can even extend upto the scrotum in men. The bulge is more prominent on standing or while doing some strenuous activity. It usually reduces in size on lying down position.

Umbilical Hernia

This is the second most common type of hernia. They happen when fat or part of the intestine pushes through muscle near the belly button. They’re more common in newborns – especially in those born earlier than expected and babies under 6 months old — but adults can get them, too.

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Femoral Hernia

A femoral hernia occurs when tissue bulges from the lower belly into the upper thigh, just below the groin crease. Femoral hernias occur more often in women than in men.

Pain from a femoral hernia is usually felt in the groin area. It is sometimes mistaken for an inguinal hernia.

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Incisional Hernia

A hernia that appears in the abdomen at the site of a previous surgery is known as an incisional hernia. These hernias can appear weeks, months, or even years after surgery and can vary in size from small to very large and complex. If you think you have an incisional hernia, it is important to see your doctor because it may widen and become extremely difficult to repair.

This type of hernia can occur in people who:
  • Are very overweight
  • Are older
  • Have used steroid medicines.
  • Have had lung problems after surgery.
  • Have had a wound infection after surgery or have had more than one surgery using the same incision

Hiatal Hernia

It occurs when part of your stomach bulges up through a weak point in your diaphragm and into your chest. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that separates your abdominal organs from your chest and has an important role in breathing.

Hiatus hernia cannot be seen from outside as like other hernias.

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Epigastric Hernia

This is present in upper half of the abdomen in midline.

Epigastric hernias often have no symptoms. But they can cause pain in the abdomen. You need surgery to repair an epigastric hernia.

European Hernia Society classification for incisional abdominal wall hernias

Prevention of Hernia

Most people can’t prevent a hernia. They occur due to a combination of genetic and medical history. However, there are a few things you can try to prevent a hernia:

  • Maintain your weight to avoid pressure on the abdominal wall.
  • Try to quit smoking if you currently smoke.
  • Refrain from straining when lifting weights, especially after you’ve had abdominal surgery. Lifting heavy weights can place excess stress on the abdominal wall.
  • Refrain from straining when passing a bowel movement. Eating a high fiber diet and drinking plenty of water can help reduce constipation and make stools easier to pass.


What is the best treatment for hernia?

There are no medicines to treat hernia. The only treatment is Surgery.

Why should a Hernia be operated?

To get rid of discomfort, Improve quality of life, prevent complications like obstruction and strangulation.

Return to normal life

From next day of surgery you can start walking and can do light work

Where can I find the best hernia surgeon in Mumbai? Near me?

Dr. Sunny Agarwal is one of the best laparoscopic hernia surgeon in Mumbai. He aims at delivering good cosmetic results, uses best quality mesh and ensures good repair of hernia. Dr. Sunny Agarwal operates in many centers like Chembur, Sion, Ghatkopar, Mankhurd, Tilak Nagar, Andheri, Borivili, Dombivili, Navi Mumbai, Vashi, Kharghar, Thane.

What happens if I don't get my hernia operated now?

A small reducible hernia can become a Large Hernia causing pain and heaviness to the patient. The intestines can go into Obstruction or Strangulation.

Getting operated on time is important otherwise the problem keeps on increasing, affecting the Quality of Life and it also makes the surgery prolonged and difficult.

Open or Laparoscopy?

Small to medium sized hernias can be easily operated laparoscopically. Large hernias may need open technique.


A mesh is placed to cover the defect of hernia so to strengthen the abdominal wall. This also reduces the chances of hernia recurrence. Mesh is not removed later. It is kept in permanently.

Precautions after surgery

Avoid lifting heavy weights, straining at stools, constipation & excessive coughing.

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